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NOTE – What follows (full content and graphics) is a current OPEN LETTER FOR SCIENCE IN SPAIN. This open Letter is the result of a consensus between the Confederation of Spanish Scientific Societies, Comisiones Obreras (I+D+i), the Federation of Young Researchers and the grassroots Investigación Digna. It will be delivered, together with the names of the assignees, to the Spanish Prime Minister and the members of the Spanish Congress and Senate. What is going on is unfortunately not different in countries like Italy, Portugal, Ireland or Greece (second graphic). Do check the Investigación Digna site for the original in Spanish:

OPEN LETTER FOR SPANISH SCIENCE

In the next few weeks, and contravening recommendation from the European Commission stating that public deficit control measures should not affect Research and Development (R&D) and innovation, the Spanish Government and Parliament could approve a State Budget that would cause considerable long-term damage to the already weakened Spanish research system, contributing to its collapse. This would imply the maintenance of an obsolete economic model that is not competitive and is especially vulnerable to all kinds of economic and political contingencies. Given the above, we ask the political representatives:

– To avoid a new reduction of the investment in R&D and innovation. In the last few years, the investment in R&D (chapter 46 of the State Budget) has suffered a cut of 4.2% in 2010 and 7.38% in 2011; for 2012, a further 8.65% cut is being considered (where the percentages refer to the cut with respect to the previous year). If the budget cut for 2012 is ratified, during those years the Public Research Organisms would have suffered an accumulated 30% reduction of the resources coming from the State Budget. Investment in R&D was 1.39% of GDP in 2010 and it is estimated that in 2011 it was less than 1.35%. In the mid-term, it should reach the mean EU-27 value of 2.3% and converge toward the European Council goal of 3%.

– To include R&D and innovation among the “priority sectors” allowing hiring in public research organisms, universities and technological centers during the fiscal year 2012. This will avoid a “brain drain” that would take decades to reverse.

“The Spanish production model (…) is exhausted, it is therefore necessary to promote a change through investment in research and innovation as a way to achieve a knowledge-based economy that guarantees a more balanced, diversified and sustainable growth.” These words, extracted from the Preamble of the Law of Science, Technology and Innovations, were approved in May 2011 by 99% of the members in the Spanish Congress and Senate, constituting a tacit National Agreement regarding the need to prioritize R+D and innovation. The diagnose is unequivocal and the solution has been identified. What is missing is that political leaders rise to their responsibilities by fulfilling this compromise. The approval of the 2012 budget by the Spanish Government and Parliament in the next few weeks is the time to demonstrate that compromise.

The budget cuts currently being considered for R&D and innovation would cause  grave long-term damage to the already weakened Spanish research system, both to its infrastructure and human resources. This would imply a loss in competitiveness, as has been recognized by the European Council. In the March 2, 2012 memorandum, the “European Council confirms research and innovation as drivers of growth and jobs (…). EU Heads of State and Government have today stressed (…) that Europe’s growth strategy and its comprehensive response to the challenges it is facing (…) requires the boost of innovation, research and development, (…) since they are a vital component of Europe’s future competitiveness and growth.” (MEMO/12/153). Given the above, we urge ask the Spanish political leaders to take the following considerations into account.

HUMAN RESOURCES IN R&D

The Royal Decree-Law 20/2011 of urgent measure to correct public deficit (BOE-A-2011-20638, Dec. 31st,  2011, Art. 3) establishes that “the hiring of personnel (…) will be restricted to sectors considered to be a priority”. It also says that during the year 2012, none of the permanent positions left vacant by retirees will be fulfilled, except in sectors considered to be a priority.

The preamble of the Law of Science, Technology and Innovation cited above establishes that R&D and innovation are a priority. Therefore, the Royal Decree-Law 20/2011 allows to reactive public hiring in R+D, essential to strengthen research institutions. During the last three years, these institutions have suffered a drastic decrease in the number of new positions. For  all public research organisms and the Spanish Research Council, and including all research levels (from laboratory personnel to research professors), the number of new positions amounted to a total of 681, 589, 106, 50 and 55, for the years of 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. The Government’s intention is to have zero positions in 2012. The situation is unsustainable: overall, the permanent staff at the public research organisms has an average age of 50-55 years, reaching 58 years at the Spanish Research Council. The number of researchers in the permanent staff is shrinking at an accelerated rate because, during the last year years, the positions left open due to retirements are not being filled. Meanwhile, the rest rest of the research staff is relegated, in the best scenario, to a concatenation of short-term contracts. The result is an important loss of competitiveness because forming a research group and obtain funding require a degree of stability that a great number of researchers in the peak of their scientific productivity do not enjoy, neither inside our outside civil service. In fact, it is urgent that the hiring system for researchers follows a more flexible model that allows the planning of human resources, indispensable to make strategic plans viable. Otherwise, the established goals will never be achieved and the abandonment of research lines will imply an important loss of investment. For example, CSIC, the largest research public organism constituted by 133 centers, received during the years 2010 and 2011 less than 20% of the minimum requirements in personnel establish in its strategic plan (Plan de Actuación 2010-2014). The other public research organisms are in a similar situation, or even worse.

The lack of stability in the human resources policy of the Spanish R&D system damages its credibility and undermines its competitiveness. The “Ramón y Cajal Programme” is a good example (but its not the only one). Nationwide, this program is the flagship of the Spanish research system in terms of human resources. It was established in 2001 with a vision whose commitment is, and always has been, to offer the possibility of tenure to the researchers in this program that pass the two evaluations established within the 5-year trial period (during the second and forth year): is the Spanish “tenure-track”. However, only 37% of the researchers from the 2006 call that have passed all evaluations have become tenured (compared to 90% from 2001). The rate is significantly smaller for researchers from the 2007 call, whose contracts will be finishing in the next few months. On average, researchers who have completed “or are about to end” their contracts, are 42 years old, have dedicated 17 years to research, lead their research activities, have extensive international experience and participate in a wide network of international collaborations. There are many other researchers with a similar profile in the same position. It is urgent that the Spanish research system fulfills the commitments of its current tenure-track, and that it is modified to allow the planning of human resources that makes the tenure-track hiring model viable (the so-called access contract  established by the Law of Science is far from being a tenure-track).

The characteristics of scientific research require decades for the formation of a skilled workforce. Spain does not harbour an R&D private sector that can absorb and take advantage of highly qualified researchers. This human resource, which has been trained thanks to a considerable national investment and is best prepared to contribute to the shift to a knowledge-based economy, will have no choice but to emigrate or leave research altogether. The country faces a multi-generational “brain drain” (from researchers starting their PhDs to those in the mid forties). Spain also risks the chance of undermining the interest towards science of the younger generations (now children and teenagers). Within a few years, Spain may have no choice but to import scientists. It will only be able to do so with costly offers that can compete with those of science-leading countries, whose human resource policies will have much greater credibility. If Spain does not take urgent action to preserve the scientific workforce of highest quality, the research system will take decades to recover, dragging down the desired shift to a knowledge-based economy.

INVESTMENT IN R&D

Investment in R&D needs to converge with the EU-27 average value and approach the 3% of GDP goal set by the European Council Lisbon Strategy. Investment in R&D was 1.39% of GDP in 2010 and it is estimated that in 2011 it was less than 1.35%. While the leading economies in the EU are near or above 2.5% (with three countries above 3%), the bailed-out countries or those that have suffered political intervention are well below 2.3% (the average investment in R&D in EU-27). Coincidence? Evidently not: none of the counties economically healthy that are in the leading group of the EU have allowed themselves to fall behind in R&D.

Investment in R&D must be stable and independent of political and economic cycles. The lack of stability, an endemic evil in the Spanish research system, causes a loss of effectiveness and credibility. In the last few years, the investment in R&D (chapter 46 of the State Budget) has suffered a cut of 4.2% in 2010 and 7.38% in 2011; for 2012, a further 8.65% cut is being considered (where the percentages refer to the cut with respect to the previous year). Spain follows a cyclical policy for R&D, which makes the country even more vulnerable when the economy is in crisis, cutting off possible means of recovery. Contrarily, many research-leading countries have adopted an anti-cyclical policy, increasing investment on R&D as the economy shrinks. In 2012, France has announced a stimulus package of € 35,000 M for research, while Germany, a champion of austerity, is rising by 5% the budget of its main research organizations until 2015 (including the Max Planck Institute and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). Furthermore, on March 2, 2012, the European Commission, with the support of the Spanish government, proposed to significantly increase the European investment in R&D from € 55,000 M in 2007-2013 to € 80,000 M in 2014 -2020 (MEMO/12/153).

A knowledge-based economy will only be successful if it guarantees the stability of the research system in terms of financial and human resources, and if there is a private sector committed to research and innovation. To promote the latter, the European Investment Bank and the European Commission created in 2007 the Risk Sharing Finance Facility (RSFF). However, if Spain does not prevent the loss of researchers, the Spanish research system will take decades to recover due to a double factor: Spanish private companies will not find qualified research staff to take advantage of these European financial resources, nor will Spanish public research institutions have a workforce to benefit from the economic grants from the European Commission (€ 80,000 M in 2014-2020).

The change to a knowledge-based economy, which could take decades to achieve, should not be measured in legislature terms and requires a National Agreement that shields it from political and economic cycles. It is a matter of national importance and should be considered a priority. In the words of the Minister of Economy and Competitiveness, Luis de Guindos “we are going to make R&D the base for future development of the Spanish economy (…) and benefit from the human resources we have and develop a research career” (Plenary Session of the Congress, 02/21/2012).

Political leaders must be coherent with the message they are sending to the Spanish society and to other countries and investors: they cannot keep the rhetoric of change to a knowledge-based economy, while every step they take is in the opposite direction, producing inevitably serious short and long-term damage to the scientific infrastructure and its human resource that can only lead us to a knowledge-borrowed economy with little know-how. “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance” (Derek Bok).

Video – A 1964 film based on the novel Zorba the Greek by Nikos Kazantzakis. The film was directed by Michael Cacoyannis and the title character was played by Anthony Quinn. The supporting cast included Alan Bates as a visiting Englishman as well as Irene Papas. The theme, “Sirtaki” by Mikis Theodorakis, has become famous and popular as a song and as a dance. The movie was shot on location on the Greek island of Crete. Specific places featured include the town of Chania, the Apokoronas region and the Akrotiri peninsula. The famous scene, in which Quinn’s character dances the Sirtaki, was shot on the beach of the village of Stavros. (from YouTube)


Basil (Alan Bates), a young English writer, meets a free-spirited Greek peasant named Zorba (Anthony Quinn) while waiting to travel to the island of Crete. While Zorba pursues a relationship with aging French courtesan Madame Hortense, Basil attempts to court a young widow. Along the way, he learns valuable life lessons from the earthy Zorba, who has an unquenchable joie de vivre (link):

[…] Basil: I don’t want any trouble. Alexis Zorba: Life is trouble. Only death is not. To be alive is to undo your belt and look for trouble. […] Zorba: Damn it boss, I like you too much not to say it. You’ve got everthing except one thing: madness! A man needs a little madness, or else… Basil: Or else? Zorba: …he never dares cut the rope and be free. […] Basil: Teach me to dance, will you? Zorba: Dance? Did you say… dance?! … Come on my boy… together… Let’s go… hop … Again… hop … […] Zorba: Boss, I have so much to tell you, … I never had loved a man like you … […] Zorba: Hey boss, did you ever see a more splendiferous crash?! … Oh, … You can laugh too!… hmmm… Hey!… You laugh! […]

(pic. – click to enlarge) Summer time in here, you know?! So, this will be my next T-shirt: “First, the Economy took over Politics. Now, Finance took over Economy. Bit by bit, planet Earth bounds to be a giant speculation machine“. @ViRAms April 28 2011 (link).

Image source: ITGO.COM (large size)

In what concerns Social Psychology, just check this out: Milgram et al.(1) found that if one person stood in a Manhattan street gazing at a sixth floor window, 20% of pedestrians looked up; if five people stood gazing, then 80% of people looked up.

As latest fraud facts told us last week in cascade manner (Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, Lehman Brothers, AIG), essentially, the current financial crisis results from the fact that in order to be a truly self-organized, self-regulated adaptive evolving system as Adam Smith envisioned (back in 1776 – The Wealth of Nations), financial markets need not only to adopt Positive Feedback as they do (e.g., the one Milgram founded, above), but mainly – though in some proportion – Negative Feedback features as well, that is, some form of a priori outside Regulation – in other words, the context and environment of the entire “game” (check here for some basic features of Self-Organization -(2).  Ill or badly defined environments among complex systems, lead to chaotic or unprecedented biased evolutionary pressures (e.g., many of the entities – read it as some companies -, cheaters playing economic games such as the Iterated Prisonners Dilemma IPD over Bounded Rationality – that should naturally “die”, in fact proliferate), turning to be counterproductive for the whole system. Self-Organization occurs in precise very-subtle-narrow regimes (“at the edge of chaos”Christopher Langton, Santa Fe Institute), not over entire entropic regimes as the one we were facing, neither over the entire spectrum (Order, Semi-Order, Edge of Chaos, Chaos – check Stuart Kaufmann’s I, II, III, IV phases). They occur near them, not in them. In order to do so, among several other things (2), also Negative Feedback is necessary. As we know from complex systems, nature, as well as artificial intelligence, the system becomes too greedy and instable.

For instance, on social insect societies know to be self-organized, Positive Feedback (PF) could be illustrated by pheromone reinforcement on trails, allowing the entire colony to exploit some past and present solutions. Generally, as in the above cases, positive feedback is imposed implicitly on the system and locally by each one of the constituent units, whereas Negative Feedback is imposed explicitly mainly by environmental “pressure” conditions, promoting counter-balanced innovative solutions. Fireflies flashing in synchrony follow the PF rule, “I signal when you signal”, fish traveling in schools abide by the rule, “I go where you go”, and so forth. In Humans, the “infectious” quality of a yawn of laughter is a familiar example of positive feedback of the form, “I do what you do”. Seeing a person yawning, or even just thinking of yawning, can trigger a yawn. There is however one associated risk, generally if Positive Feedback acts alone without the presence of Negative Feedbacks, which per si can play a critical role keeping under control this snowballing effect, providing inhibition to offset the amplification and helping to shape it into a particular pattern (2). Indeed, the amplifying nature of Positive Feedback means that it has the potential to produce destructive explosions or implosions in any process where it plays a role. Thus – several biological studies express it – the behavioral rule may be more complicated than initially suggested, possessing both an autocatalytic as well as an antagonistic aspect (2).

The fundamentalist ultra-liberal strategy of “no regulation at all”, followed in recent years, believing ideologically – like a fatwa – that markets are a truly Darwinian CAS (Complex Adaptive System) where invisible hands operate every day in a perfect situation, lead us to a chaotic situation, where shimmering waves of panic proliferate through the world (check video below), constraining states to intervene in a a posteriori manner (the ongoing Paulson Plan). Though, the ultimate best option was to do it a priori, ceasing nations to sleep much of their time earlier in face of many disastrous – out of control – innovative as well as cannibalistic financial products invented in the last decade (many of them being nothing else than financial pyramid schemes, though sophisticated), without reasoning of possible and profound dramatic social costs. Alternatively, a priori smart intervention seems to be the only resource to avoid the current ongoing privatization of profits, and immoral massive losses nationalization, being payed by tax contributors across USA and Europe. Keeping in reasonable shape the wealthy resource that finance markets really are and could be for all of us: promoting robust and innovative companies.

{ [VIDEO] Shimmering Giant Honeybees from Science News on Vimeo.
For some, Financial Markets in crisis could be seen as shimmering waves across the globe, however they are far from being self-organized as honeybee colonies. The invisible hand metaphor originates with Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations (1776). Bernard Mandeville made a similar point with his Fable of the Bees (1705), which fancifully describes human society as a wondrously productive bee hive, even though each bee is as selfish as can be (3). – Video and article (see 8). }

Washington is right now asking for help and money to China, as well as indulging many other countries in the world to step in. At the same moment, in UK, in the aftermath of the Northern Rock takeover, some big and many medium companies are now selling themselves for short, in Belgium, FORTIS is on the verge, and in Ireland – once the first example of economic bloom in Europe -, the first technical ressence in many years is now fully recognized. France seems to go next. Partial-nationalizations are now occuring from Iceland to the sunny mediterranean Gibraltar. While, back in the US, a very recent LA Times-Bloomberg poll revealed that 60% of Americans claim for some sort of state intervention. In face of this facts, ultra liberals appeal to two typical arguments: (first) that the current phenomena is inevitable (no comments on my side on that, since 1929 till now nothing of this dimension happened before), and (second) markets evolve, some die and some prosper, forgetting however that markets are far from being perfect, and truly self-organized. The question is not if some die (which they should), the question is why the current system is not being able to self-control the proliferation of cheaters and pyramidal schemes on the entire pool of economic agents, in contrast to what happens in truly evolvable economic agents playing IPD or other economic-like games, showing profound traces of self-organized features. Sadly, among many of these if not all, ultra market liberalism evangelists, self-organization is wrongly recognized as self-interest (check 3). Self-interest taken to this limits, is not only their repeated mantra, used to quote “there ain’t those things as a free lunch” (NFL) over and over again as their blindness. NFL after all, is instead broadly recognized as being connected to robustness in computational search and optimization areas. Unfornately, they will never recognize that even under some complex co-evolutionary domains (nature is full of them; where explicit targets or interests were not embedded on the evolutionary algorithm), indeed free-lunches were found (5).

In fact, in order to emerge as a truly self-organized system, self-interest, should constitute just one among many of the ingredients over the entire financial system, and not the isolated unique ingredient. Self-interest promotes amplification and positive feedback, which is – as I recognize – necessary. However, left alone, promotes instead dramatic snowballing drifts over chaotic regimes, due to it’s intrinsic amplification. It’s necessary to promote negative feedbacks as well. This is recognized for some time in neurosciences, neurocomputation and learning (check LTD – long term synaptic depression) (6,7):

  • Learning by reinforcement good responses (Positive Feedback) is a process that by definition never stops. There is not an explicit rule that ends the reinforcement whenever the goal has been reached. On the other hand, if learning proceeds only by correcting mistakes it implies a process that stops as soon as the goal is achieved. This prevents formation of “deep holes“, i.e. highly stable states from which adaptation to new rules is difficult and slow, requiring, perhaps, a significant amount of random noise.
  • If an adaptive system is placed on a new environment, or otherwise subjected to learning something new, the likelihood of making mistakes is generally larger than the chance to be initially right. Therefore, the opportunity to shape synapses is larger for the adaptive mechanism that only relies on mistakes, leading to faster convergence.

Of course, being arrived here at this turmoil chaotic stage, we are nowadays assisting – ironically – to a dramatization of Bush’s Administration speeches. Bush words “Markets are not working properly” are indeed surprising from what we are used to expect from him, his office, as his known to be quite unusual words within his neo-liberal Haliburton centered – pro oil pro preemptive war – social networks (at VisualComplexity), however, subliminally he’s nothing else then reinforcing McCain’s election over Obama, as if great part of the actual crisis did not derived from the Republican past “I see nothing, I hear nothing and I say nothing” political strategy. Lying saying the truth, again ironically, this is the quickest formula to maintain things as they were before, the entire status quo going on, while markets in despair applaud –awkwardly – state interventions for the first time (or second to be precise – 1929; also check October 1907’s actions under J.P. Morgan). Being a liberal I have always believed that some ground-smart rules are always necessary. Let’s face it: even when we drive our car over a highway.

Take the following example. For some moments image yourself to puzzle out how to create a mathematical-algorithmic model on how a flock of birds fly in collective formation. You could on one hand try to model the dynamics of each part, using differential equations, in order to achieve somehow the global behaviour – however, the phenomena is so complex and intricate that differential equations could not handle it. On the other hand, you could try to observe the phenomena innumerable times while envisioning a set of rules, based on the behaviour of the whole system, however as is typical in Self-Organized complex phenomena’s there is no pre-commitment to any particular representational scheme: the desired behaviour is distributed and roughly specified simultaneously among many parts, and there is minimal specification of the mechanism required to generate that behaviour, i.e. the global behaviour mainly evolves from the many relations of multiple simple behaviours. Parts and wholes behave differently. Relations are the key. Surprisingly, and having self-organization theory in mind, you could envision 3, and just 3 simple generative rules following positive and negative feedback features that are able to precisely model this complex phenomena (check Boids): (one) Separation: steer to avoid crowding local flockmates, (two) Alignment: steer towards the average heading of local flockmates, and (three) Cohesion: steer to move toward the average position of local flockmates. Rather, non-linear phenomena are most appropriately treated by a synthetic approach, where synthesis means “the combining of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole’. In non-linear systems, the parts must be treated in each other’s presence, rather than independently from one another, because they behave very differently in each other’s presence than we would expect from a study of the parts in isolation (4). In order to form the complex coherent whole, antagonistic measures are needed. Realistic counter-powers on the entire global economic TIC-TAC.

That’s why also, being a liberal, I defend a priori over a posteriori interventions. States, after all, were not created or envisioned to be omnipresent firefighters, specially to those few that under the 80-20 Pareto rule umbrella, profited before, month after month, with the current aftermath ([…] And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country […], John F. Kennedy). Not only Size is important (1) (critical mass) as well as Time, that is, over when should we lay down initial conditions in order to emerge the complex whole to flourish on the precise and desirable Self-Organized domain. Even better than nothing, as I believe, the current and late a posteriori state intervention will only endure the collective illusion for a while.

Not only have we recognized that markets are not perfect as Smith’s Invisible Hand metaphor seems to be dead wrong (3).  As David Sloan Wilson tackles it:

[..] I hope that our economy recovers, but the time has come to declare its guiding metaphor dead. This is the metaphor of the invisible hand, which makes it seem as if the narrow pursuit of self-interest miraculously results in a well-functioning society. […] The collapse of our economy for lack of regulation was preceded by the collapse of rational choice theory. It became clear that the single minimalistic principle of self-interest could not explain the length and breadth of human behavior. […] Mandeville could not have been more wrong about actual nature of bees. There is a difference between self-organization and self-interest. Beehives and other social insect colonies are indeed self-organized. There is no single bee commanding the troops, certainly not the queen. Each bee plays a limited role in the economy of the hive, just as a single neuron plays a limited role in the economy of the brain. The intelligence of both can be found in the interactions among the parts, which have been shaped by natural selection operating over countless generations. But bee behavior cannot be reduced to a single principle of self-interest, any more than human behavior. There are solid citizens and cheaters even among the bees, and the cheaters are held at bay only by a regulatory system called “policing” by the biologists who study them. […] We can argue at length about smart vs. dumb regulation but the concept of no regulation should be forever laid to rest. […]

Somehow, within the middle of countless wrecks, affecting innumerable millions of people thorough out the planet (even those not playing at the stock-exchange), via energy, tax, food and life cost raisings, we are still assisting at truly interesting phase-transition times. The question is: will we learn from it, or will we maintain the recent blind faith that markets, by themselves, will drive us all – similarly to communism – to the land of milk and honey?

  1. in Milgram, Bickerman and Berkowitz, “Note on the Drawing Power of Crowds of Different Size“, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 13(2), Oct 1969, pp. 79-82. Abstract: Reports on the relationship between the size of a stimulus crowd, standing on a busy city street looking up at a building, and the response of passersby. As the size of the stimulus crowd was increased a greater proportion of passersby adopted the behavior of the crowd. Data included 1424 pedestrians. The results suggest a modification of the J. S. Coleman and J. James model of the size of free-forming groups to include a contagion assumption.
  2. in V. Ramos et al., “Social Cognitive Maps, Swarm Collective Perception and Distributed Search on Dynamic Landscapes“, 2007. Abstract: Swarm Intelligence (SI) is the property of a system whereby the collective behaviors of (unsophisticated) entities interacting locally with their environment cause coherent functional global patterns to emerge. SI provides a basis with wich it is possible to explore collective (or distributed) problem solving without centralized control or the provision of a globalmodel. To tackle the formation of a coherent socialcollective intelligence from individual behaviors, we discuss several concepts related to Self-Organization, Stigmergy and Social Foraging in animals. Then, in a more abstract level we suggest and stress the role played not only by the environmentalmedia as a driving force for societal learning, as well as by positive and negative feedbacks produced by the many interactions among agents. Finally, presenting a simple model based on the above features, we will adressthe collective adaptation of a socialcommunity to a cultural (environmental, contextual) or media informational dynamical landscape, represented here – for the purpose of different experiments – by several three-dimensional mathematical functions that suddenly change over time. Results indicate that the collective intelligence is able to cope and quickly adapt to unforseensituations even when over the same cooperative foraging period, the community is requested to deal with two different and contradictory purposes.
  3. in David Sloan Wilson, “The Invisible Hand is Dead. Long Live (Smart) Regulation“, in Axis of Logic, Sep. 2008.
  4. in V. Ramos, “On the Implicit and on the Artificial – Morphogenesis and Emergent Aesthetics in Autonomous Collective Systems“, in ARCHITOPIA Book, Art, Architecture and Science, INSTITUT D’ART CONTEMPORAIN, J.L. Maubant et al. (Eds.), pp. 25-57, Chapter 2, ISBN 2905985631 – EAN 9782905985637, France, Feb. 2002.
  5. in Wolpert, D.H., and Macready, W.G. (2005) “Coevolutionary free lunches,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 9(6): 721-735.
  6. in Chialvo, D.R., Bak, P., “Learning from Mistakes“. Neuroscience, Vol. 90 (4), pp. 1137-1148, 1999.
  7. in  Bak, P., Chialvo, D.R., “Adaptive Learning by Extremal Dynamics and Negative Feedback“, Phys. Rev. E., Vol. 63, p. 031912, 2001.
  8. in Susan Gaidos, “Honeybees do the Wave“, in Science News, Web edition, Sep. 2008.

[...] People should learn how to play Lego with their minds. Concepts are building bricks [...] V. Ramos, 2002.

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