[…] Spontaneous orders should be paired with the contrasting ideal type of an instrumental organization, characterized by having a specifiable goal, unequal status ranked on the basis of service to that goal and ease of replacing, and openness to cooperative endeavors justified by their utility in serving that goal. Once this distinction is understood, it is possible to analyze symbiotic and confictual relations between spontaneous orders and the instrumental organizations within them. This approach can be used in more empirical studies of spontaneous orders and the organizations within them, such as corporations and markets or political parties and democracies or research organizations and science. […]; Weber‘s concept of spontaneous order as described by Reinhard Bendix, “Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait“, 1959.

[…] It is an old idea that society is in a number of respects similar to an organism, a living system with its cells, metabolic circuits and systems. As an example, the army functions like an immune system, protecting the organism from invaders, while the government functions like the brain, steering the whole and making decisions. In this metaphor, different organizations or institutions play the role of organs, each fulfilling its particular function in keeping the system alive, an idea that can be traced back at least as far as Aristotle, being a major inspiration for the founding fathers of sociology, such as Comte, Durkheim and especially Spencer […], in Vitorino Ramos, On the Implicit and on the Artificial – Morphogenesis and Emergent Aesthetics in Autonomous Collective Systems, in ARCHITOPIA Book, Art, Architecture and Science, INSTITUT D’ART CONTEMPORAIN, J.L. Maubant et al. (Eds.), pp. 25-57, Chapter 2, ISBN 2905985631 – EAN 9782905985637, France, Feb. 2002.