With the current ongoing dramatic need of Africa to have contemporary maps (currently, Google promises to launch his first and exhaustive world-wide open-access digital cartography of the African continent very soon), back in 1999-2000 we envisioned a very simple idea into a research project (over my previous lab. – CVRM IST). Instead of producing new maps in the regular standard way, which are costly (specially for African continent countries) as well as time consuming (imagine the amount of money and time needed to cover the whole continent with high resolution aerial photos) the idea then was to hybridize trough an automatic procedure (with the help of Artificial Intelligence) new current data coming from satellites with old data coming from the computational analysis of images of old colonial maps. For instance, old roads segmented in old maps will help us finding the new ones coming from the current satellite images, as well as those that were lost. The same goes on for bridges, buildings, numbers, letters at the map, etc. However in order to do this, several preparatory steps were needed. One of those crucial steps was to obtain (segment – know to be one of the hardest procedures in image processing) the old roads, buildings, airports, at the old maps. Back in 1999-2000 while dealing with several tasks at this research project (AUTOCARTIS – Automatic Methods for Updating Cartographic Maps) I started to think of using evolutionary computation in order to tackle and surpass this precise problem, in what then later become one of the first usages of Genetic Algorithms in image analysis. The result could be checked below. Meanwhile, the experience gained with AUTOCARTIS was then later useful not only for digital old books (Visão Magazine, March 2002), as well as for helping us finding water in Mars (at the MARS EXPRESS European project – Expresso newspaper, May 2003) from which CVRM lab. was one of the European partners. Much often in life simple ideas (I owe it to Prof. Fernando Muge and Prof. Pedro Pina) are the best ones. This is particularly true in science.
Figure – One original image (left – Luanda, Angola map) and two segmentation examples, rivers and roads respectively obtained through the Genetic Algorithm proposed (low resolution images). [at the same time this precise Map of Luanda, was used by me along with the face of Einstein to benchmark several dynamic image adaptive perception versus memory experiments via ant-like artificial life systems over what I then entitled Digital Image Habitats]
 Vitorino Ramos, Fernando Muge, Map Segmentation by Colour Cube Genetic K-Mean Clustering, Proc. of ECDL´2000 – 4th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, J. Borbinha and T. Baker (Eds.), ISBN 3-540-41023-6, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1923, pp. 319-323, Springer-Verlag -Heidelberg, Lisbon, Portugal, 18-20 Sep. 2000.
Segmentation of a colour image composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or non-stationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems. In many real world applications data clustering constitutes a fundamental issue whenever behavioural or feature domains can be mapped into topological domains. We formulate the segmentation problem upon such images as an optimisation problem and adopt evolutionary strategy of Genetic Algorithms for the clustering of small regions in colour feature space. The present approach uses k-Means unsupervised clustering methods into Genetic Algorithms, namely for guiding this last Evolutionary Algorithm in his search for finding the optimal or sub-optimal data partition, task that as we know, requires a non-trivial search because of its NP-complete nature. To solve this task, the appropriate genetic coding is also discussed, since this is a key aspect in the implementation. Our purpose is to demonstrate the efficiency of Genetic Algorithms to automatic and unsupervised texture segmentation. Some examples in Colour Maps are presented and overall results discussed.
(to obtain the respective PDF file follow link above or visit chemoton.org)